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REVIEW ON DICTYOCAULOSIS AND ITS IMPACT IN EQUINE
Lungworms are parasitic nematode worms of the order Strongylida that infest the lungs of vertebrates. The lungworms in the super family Trichostrongyloidea include several species in the genus Dictyocaulus which infest hoofed animals, including most common domestic species. Dictyocaulus arnfieldi is the true lungworm affecting donkeys, horses, mules and zebras and Lungworms are widely distributed throughout the world but are particularly common in countries with temperate climates, and in the highlands of tropical and sub-tropical countrie. The epidemiology of lungworm disease is largely concerned with factors determining the number of intensive larvae on the pasture and the rate at which they accumulate. The adult worms are most often found in the small bronchi and their eggs, containing the first stage larvae, hatch soon after being passed in the faeces. The characteristic lesion is similar in both horses and donkeys and is somewhat different from bovine parasitic bronchitis. Despite the prevalence of patent D. arnifieldi infection in donkeys, overt clinical signs are rarely seen; however, on close examination slight hyperpnoea and harsh lung sounds may be detected. Diagnosis is based on clinical signs, epidemiology, presence of first-stage larvae in feces, and necropsy of animals in the same herd or flock. The Baermann technique is the best laboratory examination used to separate lungworm larvae from faecal material. The treatment should be by broad spectrum anthelmintic like ivermectin, fenbendazole. Preventative measure often recommended just prior to their first grazing season, followed by additional treatments depending on the infestation level of the pastures and the residual effect of the administered anthelmintic. The impact of dictyocaulus arnifield in horse population is range from impaired development and performance to death. Therefore, the death of horse may decrease the economy and population of equines.The perspective of this manuscript paper is to overview the fact of lungworm and its impact in equine animals and also the way how to control and prevent lung worm of equines[Full Text Article]