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EVALUATION OF CHANGES IN SERUM CREATININE AND UREA LEVELS OF PREGNANT WOMEN ATTENDING ANTENATAL CLINIC IN RUMUOLUMENI, OBIO/AKPOR STATE, SOUTH-SOUTH, NIGERIA
Wagbara Chisom Clar, Elechi Udochi Alegua, and *Alikor Chizindu A.
Introduction: Pregnancy involves remarkable orchestration of physiological changes in women. The kidneys are central players in the budding of hormonal setting of pregnancy, responding and contributing to the changes in the environment for the pregnant woman and fetus. The efficient impact of pregnancy on kidney physiology is widespread, involving practically all aspects of kidney function. The glomerular filtration rate increases 50% with subsequent decrease in serum creatinine levels. The threshold for thirst and antidiuretic hormone secretion are depressed, resulting in lower osmolality and serum sodium levels. A parallel rise in progesterone protects the pregnant woman from hypokalemia. The kidneys increase in length and volume, and physiologic hydronephrosis occurs in up to 80% of women. Methods: The concentrations of serum creatinine and urea was investigated in 100 women of which 75 were pregnant women and categorized into 3 groups of 25 each, based on their trimesters of pregnancy and 25 non-pregnant women which served as control. Results: In the first trimester, the mean values of serum creatinine and urea was 70.7523.20?mol/L and 3.60 ±0.72 respectively. There was a significant (p<0.05) decrease in the levels of creatinine and urea when compared to the control. In the second trimester, the creatinine and urea level (78.50?mol/L and 3.49 ±0.80) showed a significant (p<0.05) decrease when aso compared to the control. In the third trimester of pregnancy, the values of serum creatinine and urea was 73.45?mol/L and 3.29 ±0.78 respectively, thus indicating a significant (p<0.05) decrease when compared with the controls. Conclusion: The progressive decrease in the levels of creatinine and urea through the 3 trimesters of pregnancy suggests an increase in glomerular filtration rate, probably due to increased cardiac output, renal blood flow and changes in fluid distribution. This study will provide an understanding of these important changes in kidney physiology during pregnancy with a clear focus on serum creatinine, which is fundamental in caring for the pregnant patient in Rumuolumeni, Obio/Akpor, Rivers State.[Full Text Article]